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Below is Tim Keller’s foreword for an excellent new book, City of Man: Religion and Politics in a New Era, by Michael Gerson and Peter Wehner, due out next week from Moody Publishers. This is the inaugural volume in “A Cultural Renewal Series,” edited by Keller and Collin Hansen.

(Foreword posted with permission.)

* * *

In the mid-twentieth-century, H. Richard Niebuhr wrote his classic Christ and Culture, which helped mainline Christian churches think through ways to relate faith to politics. In the end, Niebuhr came down on the side of universalism, the view that ultimately God is working to improve things through all kinds of religions and political movements. The result of his work was to lead mainline Protestant churches to become uncritical supporters of a liberal political agenda (though Niebuhr himself opposed such a move).

However, the mainline churches have shrunk and aged. Today, it is the more theologically conservative evangelical and Pentecostal churches that are growing, and they now outnumber mainline Protestants. Yet at the very same time, the number of secular Americans--those who claim not to believe in God, or at least to have "no religious preference"--are also fast rising in number.

This creates a far more complicated situation than the one that Niebuhr faced over half a century ago. In today's society we have both rising secularism and rising orthodoxy. We have political polarization that would have been unimaginable a generation ago. And we have an evangelical constituency that is growing and institutionally powerful, but which is also culturally impotent. Why? It is largely because it has not done the hard work of thinking through the same issues that Niebuhr pondered decades ago. But it must do so now in a very different cultural and historical situation, and with a much greater trust in the ancient sources of orthodox theology and in the reliability of the Scriptures.

The present volume seeks to do this in one particular area, that of politics. My friends Michael Gerson and Pete Wehner are excellent guides. They write as political conservatives, but they begin with a critique of the Christian Right. A very large number of young evangelicals believe that their churches have become as captured by the Right as mainline churches were captured by the Left. Michael and Pete recognize this and largely agree. But they counsel that political withdrawal is not the correct response, nor should alienated evangelicals go down the mainline path. Instead, they urge careful theological reflection, and the rest of this short volume serves as a guidebook to the issues that will have to be addressed, rather than as a finished manifesto of what this new political theology must be.

They begin by making critical distinctions between the roles of the believing individual, the institutional church, and the state. On this foundation, they introduce the issues of human rights, law and order, the role of the family, the nature of wealth and prosperity, and public discourse. In each case they define the field, show what religious believers can contribute, outline mistakes that have been made in the past, and finally hint about directions they would like to see believers take in the future. Evangelicals who are Democrats will probably wish the authors struck some additional notes or made some points differently, but overall this is a wonderfully balanced and warm invitation to believers of every persuasion to re-engage in political life, more thoughtfully than before, but as passionately as ever.

Some evangelicals will say that this is a distraction, that we should concentrate fully on the only important things--the defense of orthodox doctrine and the evangelism of the world. Yet, as the authors point out, in 1930s Germany, a faulty understanding of how Christianity relates to the political contributed to the disaster of Nazism, which in turn meant the loss of the German Lutheran Church's credibility, evangelistic witness, and even orthodoxy. Something similar happened in South Africa, where an orthodox Reformed theology, invoking the views of Abraham Kuyper, created a civil religion that supported apartheid, and as a consequence has suffered incalculable loss to its standing in the eyes of the people. Ironically, the Lutherans followed a two-kingdom approach to Christ and culture, in which Christians are not to bring their faith into politics, while Reformed Christianity has been characterized by a view that Christians are supposed to transform culture. Both approaches, when not applied thoughtfully and wisely, have led to cultural, political, and ultimately spiritual disaster.

What does this mean? It means that any simplistic Christian response to politics--the claim that we shouldn't be involved in politics, or that we should "take back our country for Jesus"--is inadequate. In each society, time, and place, the form of political involvement has to be worked out differently, with the utmost faithfulness to the Scripture, but also the greatest sensitivity to culture, time, and place. This book is a great beginning.

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18 thoughts on “Tim Keller on Christians and Politics”

  1. Phil says:

    Sounds like an interesting read, and one that is both quite timely and relevant. Thanks for the post, I look forward to the release!

  2. Truth Unites... and Divides says:

    But they counsel that political withdrawal is not the correct response, nor should alienated evangelicals go down the mainline path. Instead, they urge careful theological reflection

    Yes! Careful theological reflection would hopefully lead people to avoid the ditches of “mainline” theological and political liberalism and withdrawalism.

    So drive on the Right side of the road.

  3. Gary Horn says:

    I’m intrigued. Thanks, Justin!

  4. Ben@TIC says:

    I tend to be apolitical. Loving God and neighbor takes care of a lot of problems that can’t be solved politically.

  5. I look forward to reading this. Seems like there have been more thoughtful writings on politics coming out of late (there have always been writings on politics, but I don’t think many would be classified as thoughtful). I’m looking forward to reading this work as well as Wayne Grudem’s new work on the subject.

  6. Looselycult says:

    Uh Oh. Does this mean that Dr. Keller is actually starting to come out of the Politcally Conservative closet? Maybe I am wrong her but I have gotten the impression in the past that he has tried for a long time not to give any impression that he comes down on either the left or the right on politics. Could this be changing?

    1. MRS says:

      To the contrary, I had always viewed Keller as mildly liberal on political matters. Gerson is not a fire-breather of any sort, however, though Wehner is a true-blue conservative. Wehner writes for Commentary still and both men worked for GWB.

  7. Looselycult says:

    Yeah MRS I disagree. I think this is a case of the old “A moderate is liberal to a conservative and a moderate is conservative to a liberal.”

  8. Truth Unites... and Divides says:

    Oftentimes, today’s conservative is yesterday’s liberal.

    I.e., liberalism is leaven.

  9. Looselycult says:

    Truth Unites: Then I guess that would make you a liberal too.

  10. Truth Unites... and Divides says:

    Looselycult: You forgot to read the word “Oftentimes”. Not ignoring context will make you a better reader and improve your comprehension.

    1. Andy says:

      Not responding in pride will make us all better brothers. ;)

      As it is, I don’t think Keller is “liberal” or “conservative”. I think he’s simply a faithful Christian to the best of his abilities, by the grace of God. As a result, many conservatives will think, “He doesn’t share all of my goals, therefore he must be a liberal!” and liberals will think, “He doesn’t share all of my goals, therefore he must be a conservative!”

      May Christ replace our petty goals with his perfect ones.

      1. Truth Unites... and Divides says:

        His perfect goals include not murdering the unborn and for marriage to be between one man and one woman.

  11. Loosely Cult says:

    I’m sorry “Truth Unites” your right. How’s this: I guess that could make you a liberal too?

    Andy your take on Keller was mine too but based on these comments he’s making in the forward of this book maybe he is starting to change that.

  12. Chris Reese says:

    Hi Justin,
    Thanks for highlighting City of Man. I hope its message gets a wide hearing. For anyone who’s interested, I’ve put up a link on my blog to the foreword (which you posted earlier) and the preface ( Thanks!

  13. Erich Kofmel says:

    On political theology, check out my blog, the “Political Theology Agenda”:


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Justin Taylor, PhD

Justin Taylor is executive vice president of book publishing and book publisher for Crossway and blogs at Between Two Worlds. You can follow him on Twitter.

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