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In March of 1863, 18-year-old Charles Appleton Longfellow walked out of his family’s house on Brattle Street in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and—unbeknownst to his family—boarded a train bound for Washington, D.C., traveling over 400 miles across the eastern seaboard in order to join President Lincoln’s Union army to fight in the Civil War.

Charles (b. June 9, 1844) was the oldest of six children born to Fannie Elizabeth Appleton and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, the celebrated literary critic and poet. Charles had five younger siblings: a brother (aged 17) and three sisters (ages 13, 10, 8—another one had died as an infant).

Less than two years earlier, Charles’s mother Fannie had tragically died after her dress caught on fire. Her husband, awoken from a nap, tried to extinguish the flames as best he could, first with a rug and then his own body, but she had already suffered severe burns. She died the next morning (July 10, 1861), and Henry Longfellow’s facial burns were severe enough that he was unable even to attend his own wife’s funeral. He would grow a beard to hide his burned face and at times feared that he would be sent to an asylum on account of his grief.

When Charley (as he was called) arrived in Washington D.C., he sought to enlist as a private with the 1st Massachusetts Artillery. Captain W. H. McCartney, commander of Battery A, wrote to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow for written permission for Charley to become a soldier. HWL (as his son referred to him) granted the permission.

Longfellow later wrote to his friends Charles Sumner (senator from Massachusetts), John Andrew (governor of Massachusetts), and Edward Dalton (medical inspector of the Sixth Army Corps) to lobby for his son to become an officer. But Charley had already impressed his fellow soldiers and superiors with his skills, and on March 27, 1863, he was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the 1st Massachusetts Cavalry, assigned to Company “G.”

After participating on the fringe of the Battle of Chancellorsville in Virginia (April 30-May 6, 1863), Charley fell ill with typhoid fever and was sent home to recover. He rejoined his unit on August 15, 1863, having missed the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863).



While dining at home on December 1, 1863, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow received a telegram that his son had been severely wounded four days earlier. On November 27, 1863, while involved in a skirmish during a battle of of the Mine Run Campaign, Charley was shot through the left shoulder, with the bullet exiting under his right shoulder blade. It had traveled across his back and skimmed his spine. Charley avoided being paralyzed by less than an inch.

He was carried into New Hope Church (Orange County, Virginia) and then transported to the Rapidan River. Charley’s father and younger brother, Ernest, immediately set out for Washington, D.C., arriving on December 3. Charley arrived by train on December 5. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was alarmed when informed by the army surgeon that his son’s wound “was very serious” and that “paralysis might ensue.” Three surgeons gave a more favorable report that evening, suggesting a recovery that would require him to be “long in healing,” at least six months.

On Christmas day, 1863, Longfellow—a 57-year-old widowed father of six children, the oldest of which had been nearly paralyzed as his country fought a war against itself—wrote a poem seeking to capture the dynamic and dissonance in his own heart and the world he observes around him. He heard the Christmas bells that December day and the singing of “peace on earth” (Luke 2:14), but he observed the world of injustice and violence that seemed to mock the truthfulness of this optimistic outlook. The theme of listening recurred throughout the poem, eventually leading to a settledness of confident hope even in the midst of bleak despair.

You can read the whole poem below:

I heard the bells on Christmas Day
Their old, familiar carols play,

and wild and sweet
The words repeat

Of peace on earth, good-will to men!

And thought how, as the day had come,
The belfries of all Christendom

Had rolled along
The unbroken song

Of peace on earth, good-will to men!

Till ringing, singing on its way,
The world revolved from night to day,

A voice, a chime,
A chant sublime

Of peace on earth, good-will to men!

Then from each black, accursed mouth
The cannon thundered in the South,

And with the sound
The carols drowned

Of peace on earth, good-will to men!

It was as if an earthquake rent
The hearth-stones of a continent,

And made forlorn
The households born

Of peace on earth, good-will to men!

And in despair I bowed my head;
“There is no peace on earth,” I said;

“For hate is strong,
And mocks the song

Of peace on earth, good-will to men!”

Then pealed the bells more loud and deep:
“God is not dead, nor doth He sleep;

The Wrong shall fail,
The Right prevail,

With peace on earth, good-will to men.”

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14 thoughts on “The True Story of Pain and Hope Behind “I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day””

  1. Fred says:

    Brilliant share, thank you. The depth of evil and aggression of man can not drown out God’s nature and light.

  2. Darcy Lynne says:

    I knew that the Civil War was the context of the writing of this poem, but I had never heard the personal circumstances of HWL’s life that influenced him. The song is powerful, even without that context, but moreso with it. Thank you for sharing!

  3. Thank you! I’ve known about the context of this song, but the video you shared was new to me. The presentation is absolutely beautiful and profound. Thanks for sharing something so meaningful when so much that is worthless clamors for our attention during the Advent Season. Merry Christmas.

  4. Carol Sittema says:

    So relevant for our world today!

  5. Pamela Thoms says:

    So the article mentions 4 girls as siblings of Charles, but only has the ages of three. How old was the other sister?

    1. Justin Taylor says:

      Good catch! The fourth one died at less than a year old (1847–48).

  6. Richie Rice says:

    This past Sunday, my pastor preached from Colossians 1:15-23. He began his sermon by addressing how many count the incarnation as insignificant because it did not do away with racism and war. There is not peace on earth or goodwill to men. But, as the preacher pointed out, Jesus never promised to do away with these things at his first coming! In fact, he promised they would continue (Mt 10:34). But he most certainly accomplished what he did come for at his first advent! He has brought reconciliation between God and Man (Col 1:21-22)! He has brought peace and salvation. And when the risen One returns in glory and power, he will finally destroy racism and war and bring perfect peace on earth and goodwill to men.

  7. Julia tucker says:

    One of my favorite poets because of my great I grandmother’s love of his poetry, read to me from her lap at an early age. Did not know this story behind his work. Thanks for sharing.

  8. Fay Boatfield says:

    This is wonderful and touching, thank you for posting.

  9. Sharon says:

    Seeing the back story of hymns, poems or Christmas songs so enhances their depth! Thank you for posting it.

  10. Cyndi Simpson says:

    It is wonderful indeed to read the story behind this lovely hymn – thank you. It is also important to note that Longfellow and his family – as well as his wife’s family – were all Unitarians. That means they did not believe in Jesus as the Christ, as the divine Son of God. For them, Jesus was a beloved human teacher and exemplar, and Christmas a time to celebrate his birth as the human Jesus of Nazareth. The Longfellows would have followed the higher criticism from Germany, that taught people how to read the Christian Bible from the perspective of language and literature, as story and metaphor, never as the literal truth.

  11. Melody says:

    Thanks for sharing this! I’ve always loved this song and this year especially I was wondering who wrote it and when, but I hadn’t looked it up yet!

  12. Penny says:

    May I copy & share this article (giving credit to you) in my Christmas newsletter?

    1. Justin Taylor says:

      Sure, Penny. Thanks for asking.

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Justin Taylor, PhD

Justin Taylor is executive vice president of book publishing and book publisher for Crossway and blogs at Between Two Worlds. You can follow him on Twitter.

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