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It sounds like the beginning of a joke or a support group introduction, but it’s true: some of my best friends are Baptists. I speak at conferences with and to Baptists. I read books by Baptists (both the dead and the living). I love the Baptist brothers I know–near and far–who preach God’s word and minister faithfully in Christ’s church. I went to a Baptist church while in college and know that there are many folks of more credobaptist persuasion in my own church. I imagine the majority of my blog readers are Baptist. You get the picture. I have thousands of reasons to be thankful for my brothers and sisters in Christ who do not believe in baptizing infants.

And yet, I do. Gladly. Wholeheartedly. Because of what I see in Scripture.

One of the best things I get to do as a pastor is to administer the sacrament of infant baptism to the covenant children in my congregation. Before each baptism, I take a few minutes to explain why we practice infant baptism in our church. My explanation always includes some–but rarely is there time for all–of the following:

It our great privilege this morning to administer that sacrament of baptism to one of our little infants. We do not believe that there is anything magical about the water we apply to the child. The water does not wash away original sin or save the child. We do not presume that this child is regenerate (though he may be), nor do we believe that every child who gets baptized will automatically go to heaven. We baptize infants not out of superstition or tradition or because we like cute babies. We baptize infants because they are covenant children and should receive the sign of the covenant.

In Genesis 15 God made a covenant with Abraham. This covenant was sealed with the sign of circumcision in Genesis 17. God promised to bless Abraham. For Abraham this meant two things in particular, offspring and land. But at the heart of the covenant was God’s promise that he would be a God to Abraham and his children (Gen. 17:7, 8).

Circumcision was not just a physical thing, marking out ethnic Jews. Circumcision was full of spiritual meaning. The circumcision of the flesh was always meant to correspond with circumcision of the heart (Rom. 2:25-29). It pointed to humility, new birth, and a new way of life (Lev. 26:40-42; Deut. 10:16; 30:6; Jer. 4:4; 6:10; 9:25). In short, circumcision was a sign of justification. Paul says in Romans 4:11 that Abraham “received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised.” God’s own interpretation of circumcision is that it was much more than just a physical sign for national Israel.

Remarkably, though, this deeply spiritual sign was given to Ishmael as well as Isaac, even though only Isaac was the continuation of the promised line. The spiritual sign was not just for those who already embraced the spiritual reality. It was to be administered to Abraham and his sons. Circumcision was not a simple equation. It didn’t automatically mean the recipient of the sign was in possession of the thing signified. Circumcision, like baptism, also pointed to belonging, discipleship, covenant obligations, and allowed for future faith that would take hold of the realities symbolized. Just as there were some in Paul’s day who were circumcised but not really circumcised (Rom. 2:25-29), some children of Abraham who were not truly children of Abraham (Rom. 9:6-8), so in our day there are some who are baptized who are not truly baptized. Children should be marked as belonging to the covenant, but unless they exercise saving faith, they will not grab hold of the covenant blessings.

Children today are baptized based on this same covenant with Abraham. Paul makes clear in Galatians 3 what Peter strongly suggests in Acts 2, namely that the Abrahamic covenant has not been annulled. It is still operational. In fact, we see the basic promise of the Abrahamic covenant running throughout the whole Bible, right up to the new heaven and new earth in Revelation 21.

Because sons were part of the Abrahamic covenant in the Old Testament and were circumcised, we see no reason why children should be excluded in the New Testament sign of baptism. Admittedly, there is no text that says “Hear ye, hear ye, circumcision replaces baptism.” But we know from Colossians 2:11-12 that baptism and circumcision carried the same spiritual import. The transition from one to the other was probably organic. As the Jews practiced proselyte baptism, that sign came to be seen as marking inclusion in the covenant people. For awhile circumcision existed along baptism, but as the early church became more Gentile, many of Jewish rites were rendered unnecessary, and sometimes even detrimental to the faith. Thus, baptism eclipsed circumcision as the sign renewal, rebirth, and covenant membership.

Although not conclusive all by themselves, there are several other arguments that corroborate a paedobaptist reading of the New Testament.

One, the burden of proof rests on those who would deny children a sign they had received for thousands of years. If children were suddenly outside the covenant, and were disallowed from receiving any “sacramental” sign, surely such a massive change, and the controversy that would have ensued, would been recorded in the New Testament. Moreover, it would be strange for children to be excluded from the covenant, when everything else moves in the direction of more inclusion from the Old Covenant to the New.

Two, the existence of household baptisms is evidence that God still deals with households as a unit and welcomes whole families into the church to come under the Lordship of Christ together (Acts 16:13-15; 32-34; 1 Cor. 1:16; cf. Joshua 24:15).

Three, children are told to obey their parents in the Lord (Eph. 6:1). Children in the church are not treated as little pagans to be evangelized, but members of the covenant who owe their allegiance to Christ.

Four, within two centuries of the Apostles we have clear evidence that the church was practicing infant baptism. If this had been a change to long-standing tradition, we would have some record of the church arguing over this new practice. It wasn’t until the sixteenth century that Christians began to question the legitimacy of infant baptism.

So we come to administer the sacrament of baptism to this child today with the weight of church history to encourage us and the example of redemptive history to confirm our practice. We baptize in obedience to Christ’s command. The sacrament we are about to administer is a sign of inclusion in the covenant community as circumcision was, and the water we are about to sprinkle is a sign of cleansing from sin as the sprinkled blood of bulls and goats in the Old Testament was. We pray that this little one will take advantage of all his covenant privileges, acknowledge his Lord all the days of his life, and by faith make these promises his own.


I doubt I’ve changed too many minds with this post, but maybe I’ve helped my Baptist friends understand what we mean (and don’t mean) by infant baptism. Maybe I’ve clarified a couple misunderstandings. Maybe I’ve strengthened the convictions of a few paedobaptists who weren’t sure why they believed what they said they believed. No matter where you fall on this issue, I encourage you think through the topic with an open Bible and some good resources in hand.

As a paedobaptist I recommend:

To understand how someone could come to embrace infant baptism, check out the “How I Changed My Mind” articles from:

We hand out Johnson’s 14-page letter to his daughter (who was struggling with the doctrine of infant baptism) in our new members class.

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160 thoughts on “A Brief Defense of Infant Baptism”

  1. Brandon says:

    Pastor Kevin,

    I have a question that I can’t seem to find an answer to:

    What should new parents do if they become persuaded of infant baptism but are members of a church that only baptizes professing believers?

    I ask because I fear that I may soon find myself in this predicament. I don’t want to leave my home church, but if infant baptism is indeed biblical (and I’m beginning to think it is) I don’t want to disobey God and withhold my daughter from this covental privilege.

    So please, if you or any others could offer me a bit of wisdom on how I might proceed, it would be welcomed with much appreciation.

    In Christ,

  2. Ashley says:

    So as I understand it, you don’t view Baptism as representative of salvation or personal decision; it’s simply a covenant or dedication of the family to the Lord. So why then would you not use the term “covenant ceremony” or “dedication ceremony?” The word Baptism in Scripture is reserved for instances when BELIEF has occurred by the individual. I don’t write this in an argumentative way at all – I have several close friends who view infant baptism as you do. I’m simply uncomfortable using the word “baptism” to define a commitment ceremony (and not as a result of personal salvation).

  3. Bill says:

    Dear Pastor

    I just discovered your blog and enjoy it very much.

    A couple of questions:

    1. In the old testament only the male child was circumcised but both male and female infants are baptized. How come?

    2. An infant is baptized. Some years later he or she is saved by grace through faith. My understanding is that in the PCA he or she would not be baptized again. Is that correct?

    Isn’t that exchanging something that is clearly commanded, believers baptism, for something that is based on inferences, infant baptism?

    2a. In the new testament, Jews who were saved were baptized even though they had been circumcised. Please comment.

    Thanks very much


  4. A hymn that has been used for infant baptism, “Covenant Child.” Free to print and use.

  5. timothy says:

    tried to get caught up on the comments but too many. The Old or New Testament does not connect baptism to circumcision at all. This would only be an attempt to justify a practice. Concerning 1Peter “baptism saves us” please don’t leave out the previous phrase “the like FIGURE.” Baptism is a symbol, Paul declares in baptism “we are buried with him through baptism into death.” I don’t think people actually die in baptism so this must be figurative language:)

  6. John says:

    There is a misunderstanding of what Abrahamic circumcision was. It was not an initiation rite for the children of the Covenant. Male children entered the Covenant community at the same time as female children, at birth. It was specifically commanded to be performed following a period of seven days after birth, i.e., after the child had been in the Covenant for those seven days. It was also essential that it be performed some time if the Covenant child was not to be cut off from his people, or, in New Covenant terminology, damned (Mark 16:16). God so ordered nature that it would be dangerous to circumcise a child before those seven days were past so we have a chicken and egg type of logical causation: They mustn’t circumcise before the eighth day because it would be dangerous to do so, and God ordered nature this way because He intended the Sign of the Covenant not to be received before the seven day period had passed. There must be a New Testament parallel, an antitype to this seven day period, otherwise why would God have ordained the type. What is this antitype? Clearly the time that elapses between birth and regeneration in the Spiritual Covenant!
    Circumcision, in addition to being bloody, was also physically permanent. Once it had been performed, something was missing permanently from the body of the Covenant child, so that even if he were kidnapped as a baby and had no memory of the event of circumcision, nobody would be able to get him to believe he had never been circumcised.. This is not the case with baptism: The “filth of the flesh” (1 Peter 3:22) , unlike the foreskin, returns at the drop of a hat!
    In circumcision the human action, the wielding of the knife was essentially joined in time to the permanent change. Why should it be any different under the New Testament? Why should the human-conducted rite of baptism be deliberately made to precede the permanent change, the circumcision of the heart, by any significant stretch of time?
    That is why I am still a pistobaptist (I won’t say “Credobaptist”, unless you substitute “Infantobaptist” for “Paedobaptist” – Either both terms Greek or both terms Latin).

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Kevin DeYoung

Kevin DeYoung is the senior pastor at Christ Covenant Church in Matthews, North Carolina. He is chairman of the board of The Gospel Coalition, assistant professor of systematic theology at Reformed Theological Seminary (Charlotte), and a PhD candidate at the University of Leicester. Kevin and his wife, Trisha, have seven children. You can follow him on Twitter.

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